Researchers estimate that 11 to 25 percent of the world’s population dies from cancer. Similar statistics are usually typical for animals. The exceptions are elephants, naked blind dogs and blind dogs, which very rarely suffer from cancer
Humans have almost thousand times more cells than mice and live about 30 times longer. this suggests that he should suffer from cancer more often.
The first person to draw attention to the present discrepancy in 1977 was British epidemiologist Richard Peto. things seemed all the weirder because within the same species there was a correlation between body size, age and risk of cancer. Thus, in tall people, malignant tumors are more often detected and that they die more often from aggressive sorts of cancer. what proportion this will be explained by cellular division is debatable.
It is now known that a lot of genes associated, for instance , with growth, also affect the likelihood of developing cancer.
Fifth suggested that in evolution, large, long-lived mammals could develop special mechanisms to destroy the cells of the newly formed tumor. But given how often and independently of every other large animals have evolved within the history of the earth , these mechanisms have obviously been very different. Further research confirmed these assumptions.
Who doesn’t suffer from cancer
It was already known at the time that in humans and lots of other mammals, cancer was linked to the TP53 gene, which prevents tumor cell transformation. When DNA is broken , for instance by radiation, the protein produced by the gene activates genome repair processes.
After that, his research group analyzed the genomes of the closest relatives of elephants: mammoths, damasks, manatees, and located that the amount of such copies is consistently increasing in large terrestrial mammals with increasing size. additionally , it clothed that the majority of them are retrogenic. there have been no introns in them – uncoded parts of DNA. Usually, retrogens aren’t functional, but in elephants they performed the function of identifying “harmful” cells.
In addition, it clothed that the protein, which is produced by elephants’ anti-cancer genes, is additionally of higher quality. Researchers from the University of Utah (USA) have discovered that when a protein is produced from a person’s variant of TP53, it gives damaged cells an opportunity to repair themselves, while its analogue in elephants triggers an apoptosis program. In experiments with an equivalent level of radiation , elephant lymphocytes self-degraded twice as often as in humans.
The scientists then added the elephant wonder protein to human and mouse cancer cells with TP53 gene damage. In both cases, apoptosis was effectively enhanced. Supported these results, American and Israeli scientists have started developing a drug that not only cures cancer, but also prevents it. it’s assumed that these are going to be micro-capsules that are ready to bind to cell membranes and deliver the content they carry, which is elephant protein.
The environment is vital
In 2013, Science magazine named the naked rodent (Heterocephalus glaber), originally from Africa, the “vertebrate of the year”. Such an honor is given to an animal for help in cancer research. Incredibly long life (according to rodent standards), lack of signs of aging in adulthood and resistance to oncological diseases, have made it a perfect subject of study.